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Graduate courses

Departments' graduate courses for PhD-students.


Syllabus for

Academic year
FFY144 - Physics 2
Fysik 2
Syllabus adopted 2019-02-06 by Head of Programme (or corresponding)
Owner: TKELT
7,5 Credits
Grading: TH - Pass with distinction (5), Pass with credit (4), Pass (3), Fail
Education cycle: First-cycle
Major subject: Engineering Physics
Department: 16 - PHYSICS

Teaching language: Swedish
Application code: 50113
Open for exchange students: No
Only students with the course round in the programme plan

Module   Credit distribution   Examination dates
Sp1 Sp2 Sp3 Sp4 Summer course No Sp
0119 Examination 6,0c Grading: TH   6,0c   26 Oct 2020 pm L   05 Jan 2021 am J,  24 Aug 2021 pm J
0219 Laboratory 1,5c Grading: UG   1,5c    

In programs



Mats Granath

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General entry requirements for bachelor's level (first cycle)
Applicants enrolled in a programme at Chalmers where the course is included in the study programme are exempted from fulfilling the requirements above.

Specific entry requirements

The same as for the programme that owns the course.
Applicants enrolled in a programme at Chalmers where the course is included in the study programme are exempted from fulfilling the requirements above.

Course specific prerequisites

Physics (FFY401) from the first year of study.


To provide an overview of physical properties of matter, primarily crystalline metals and semiconductors. Basic knowledge of condensed matter's optical and electrical properties, dependence on temperature, composition and doping is of great importance for later courses in the program.

Learning outcomes (after completion of the course the student should be able to)

  • account for the cubic crystal structures, as well as the terms lattice vectors and base
  • calculate the Miller index for an atomic plane and know how these are related to reciprocal lattice vectors
  • explain and give examples of the three common types of crystal bonds; ionic bonds, covalent bonds and metal binding
  • calculate spectra of lattice vibrations (phonons) for simple crystals and understand their relation to specific heat and heat conduction 
  • determining cubic crystal structure using x-ray diffraction
  • determine the structure and lattice constant by Bragg's law and with the diffraction condition in terms of reciprocal lattice vectors and extinction in terms of a structure factor
  • explain the meaning of the terms electron density, density of states, Fermi-Dirac's distribution function and Fermi energy, and be able to do calculations using the universal relationships between these
  • account for the free electron model
  • do calculations using Ohm's law and conductivity using the Drude model, as well as the connection with mobility
  • describe the reciprocal lattice for cubic crystals as well as explain the concepts of Brillouin Zones and Bragg planes
  • explain how a periodic potential gives rise to energy bands and energy gaps and how the electron distribution in the bands determines whether a substance becomes metal or insulator/semiconductor
  • explain the meaning of the concepts of effective mass, law of mass action, electrons, holes, n and p-doping, intrinsic and extrinsic behavior for doped semiconductors
  • calculate electron and hole densities, position of the chemical potential and electrical conductivity in a given semiconductor material with known doping and temperature
  • explain the Hall effect and use this to determine electron or hole density
  • calculate the size of the band gap for semiconductor given optical transmission data and/or temperature dependence of the conductivity
  • solve easier heat conduction and heat expansion problems
  • account for the key elements of thermodynamics, as well as the concepts of heat and pressure-volume work
  • treat idealized thermodynamic processes and calculate efficiencies for simple cycles


Solid state physics. Overview of material types, crystal structures and type of bonds. Determination of crystal structures by x-ray and electron diffraction. The electron gas, Fermi-Dirac distribution function, density of state, free electron model, almost-free electron model, Brillouin zones and energy bands. Conductivity using the Drude model in metals and semiconductors. Calculations of electron and hole densities in clean and doped semiconductors.

Laboration: 1. Structure determination with X-ray. 2. Semiconductor: measuring temperature dependent resistivity and the Hall effect. 3. Hot air engine, Stirling cycle.   

Thermodynamics. Heat expansion, heat transport, heat conduction equation. First and second law. Heat engine examples. Maxwell-Boltzmann's distribution function.


The teaching is in form of lectures, class room excercises and laboratory work


Philip Hofmann; Solid State Physics, Wiley-VCH, 1st or 2nd edition

Serway & Jewett; Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, Cengage Learning Inc., 7e, 8e, eller 9e upplagan.

Steven H. Simon; The Oxford Solid State Basics, Oxford University Press.

Examination including compulsory elements

A written examination at end of the cource. There is an optional midterm examination and optional exercise problems that give bonus points that can contribute to the grade. For a final mark also laboratory sessions must be passed.

Page manager Published: Thu 04 Feb 2021.